2 The trailing plant of the gourd family that produces the squash. It is grown in a wide altitudinal range: from sea level to as high as 1,800 meters (5,900 ft) in dry areas, usually with the use of irrigation, or in areas with a defined rainy season, where seeds are sown in May and June. Five species are grown worldwide for their edible fruit, variously known as squash, pumpkin, or gourd, depending on species, variety, and local parlance,[a] and for their seeds. [125], Along with maize and beans, squash has been depicted in the art work of the native peoples of the Americas for at least 2,000 years. In Brazil (locally called chuchu) and other Latin American countries, it is breaded and fried, or used cooked in salads, soups, stews and soufflés. Flowers have five fused yellow to orange petals (the corolla) and a green bell-shaped calyx. In Indonesia, chayotes are called labu siam and widely planted for their shoots and fruit. Featuring aromatic saffron and loaded with vegetables, it’s sure to impress. [12] Fruit size varies considerably: wild fruit specimens can be as small as 4 centimeters (1.6 in) and some domesticated specimens can weigh well over 300 kilograms (660 lb). The term "pepo" is used primarily for Cucurbitaceae fruits, where this fruit type is common, but the fruits of Passiflora and Carica are sometimes also pepos. autumn ball][citation needed]or 合掌瓜, and is generally stir-fried. ), fusarium wilt (Fusarium spp. There is wide variation in size, shape, and color among Cucurbita fruits, and even within a single species. [6] The morphological variation in the species C. pepo[7] and C. maxima[8] is so vast that its various subspecies and cultivars have been misidentified as totally separate species. [46] Some varieties of C. pepo germinate best with eight hours of sunlight daily and a planting depth of 1.2 centimeters (0.47 in). [106] The squash bug causes major damage to plants because of its very toxic saliva. ovifera. Add 3 corn tortillas in a single layer. Summer Squash in Spanish. Along with the young leaves, the shoot is a commonly consumed vegetable in the region. [6][20] The five domesticated species are mostly isolated from each other by sterility barriers and have different physiological characteristics. Winter squash, creeping plant, round, oblate, or oval shape and round or flat on the ends. Winter Squash in Spanish can be different from Winter Squash in English. [9] It was probably bred for its seeds, which are large and high in oil and protein, but its flesh is of poorer quality than that of C. moschata and C. pepo. Argentina holds an annual nationwide pumpkin festival Fiesta Nacional del Zapallo ("Squashes and Pumpkins National Festival"), in Ceres, Santa Fe,[162] on the last day of which a Reina Nacional del Zapallo ("National Queen of the Pumpkin") is chosen. sororia is found from Mexico to Nicaragua, and cultivated forms are used in a somewhat wider area stretching from Panama to the southeastern United States. ", "Production of Cucurbita Interspecific Hybrids ThroughCross Pollination and Embryo Rescue Technique", "Phylogenetic Relationships among Domesticated and Wild Species of, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, "The Effects of Seed Number and Prior Fruit Dominance on the Pattern of Fruit Production in, "Flowering and Fruit Set of Pumpkin Cultivars under Field Conditions", "Involvement of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signalling in Fruit Set and Early Fruit Development in Zucchini Squash (, "Stamen-derived Bioactive Gibberellin is Essential for Male Flower Development of, "A Proposed Subspecific Classification for, "Eastern North America as an Independent Center of Plant Domestication", "Archaeobiology: Squash Seeds Yield New View of Early American Farming", "Archaeological Evidence of Teosinte Domestication From Guilá Naquitz, Oaxaca", "Origins of Agriculture in Eastern North America", "The "How" of the Three Sisters: The Origins of Agriculture in Mesoamerica and the Human Niche", "The Beginning and Growth of Agriculture in Mexico", "Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars", "Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. [32], All species of Cucurbita have 20 pairs of chromosomes. Define meaning of "squash": Edible fruit of a squash plant; eaten as a vegetable. Summer squash, prefers half-shrubby habitat, flattened or slightly discoidal shape, with undulations or equatorial edges. [6][59][60][75] This evidence was found in the Guilá Naquitz cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, during a series of excavations in the 1960s and 1970s, possibly beginning in 1959. [172] The pumpkins used for jack-o-lanterns are C. pepo,[173][174] not to be confused with the ones typically used for pumpkin pie in the United States, which are C. C. argyrosperma has ovate-cordate (egg-shaped to heart-shaped) leaves. Changes in fruit shape and color indicate that intentional breeding of C. pepo had occurred by no later than 8,000 years BP. This list of gourds and squashes provides an alphabetical list of (mostly edible) varieties of the plant genus Cucurbita, commonly called gourds, squashes, pumpkins and zucchinis/courgettes. [119] Squash soup is a dish in African cuisine. Male flowers in Cucurbitaceae generally have five stamens, but in Cucurbita there are only three, and their anthers are joined together so that there appears to be one. There is debate about the taxonomy of the genus, as the number of accepted species varies from 13 to 30. These types of plants do not spread as the vine types do. Common names can differ by location. In Australia, a persistent urban legend is that McDonald's apple pies were made of chokos (chayotes), not apples. [9][32][62][63] C. pepo may have appeared in the Old World before moving from Mexico into South America. Definition of WINTER SQUASH in the Definitions.net dictionary. [36][37] Seedlessness is known to occur in certain cultivars of C. A popular starter of Chou chou au Gratin (baked with a cheese sauce), as a side with a meal and even as a dessert. C. ficifolia is an exception, being highly uniform in appearance. Winter Squash in Spanish. [40] The plant hormones ethylene and auxin are key in fruit set and development. The flesh has a fairly bland taste, and a texture is described as a cross between a potato and a cucumber. Squash Named from an Indian Word ... At the time of the Spanish conquest it was found growing in such areas and has never since been found elsewhere except as evidently carried by man. [38][39], The most critical factors in flowering and fruit set are physiological, having to do with the age of the plant and whether it already has developing fruit. [52][64] All but a few C. pepo cultivars can be included in these groups. [9], Cucurbita fruits are large and fleshy. In the most common variety, the fruit is roughly pear-shaped, somewhat flattened and with coarse wrinkles, ranging from 10 to 20 cm in length. These effects vary significantly between the different species of Cucurbita. In the spring, do not plant this crop until after the last chance of frost has passed, and the soil temperature is 60 ºF, 4-inches below the surface. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo) is a warm-season crop that grows best at average temperatures between 65 and 75 °F. to a tune in 68 time. [13][14] The seeds, which are attached to the ovary wall (parietal placentation) and not to the center, are large and fairly flat with a large embryo that consists almost entirely of two cotyledons. The squash can be peeled and boiled, roasted, steamed, or sauteed; it can be served as a side dish, used as a soup base, or used for pumpkin pie filling. [7], The typical cultivated Cucurbita species has five-lobed or palmately divided leaves with long petioles, with the leaves alternately arranged on the stem. [6] Genetic studies of the mitochondrial gene nad1 show there were at least six independent domestication events of Cucurbita separating domestic species from their wild ancestors. Seeds planted deeper than 12.5 centimeters (4.9 in) are not likely to germinate. A long and entertaining read, this bilingual book, features text in both English and Spanish, and includes a recipe for “calabacitas” (a spicy vegetable dish made with squash, corn, and chiles) at the end. [10] Chayote is used in many kinds of dishes such as soup (often as a substitute for upo squash), stir-fried vegetables and chop suey. Mixed with beef, pork or chicken chou chou is widely used to make delicious steamed Chinese dumplings called niouk yen (boulette chou chou) or chow mai. The roots are also highly susceptible to rot, especially in containers, and the plant in general is finicky to grow. Wipe the skillet clean and return to medium-high heat with 1 tbsp vegetable oil. [6][9][59][60] Debates about the origin of C. pepo have been on-going since at least 1857. [121] C. ficifolia is used to make soft and mildly alcoholic drinks. The leaves and fruit have diuretic, cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory properties, and a tea made from the leaves has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerosis and hypertension, and to dissolve kidney stones.[7]. Also during this period, the plant spread from Mesoamerica to other parts of the Americas, ultimately causing it to be integrated into the cuisine of many other Latin American nations. The chou chou is also consumed as pickle, salad, gratin, curry and sauté with beef, egg or chicken. [15], Baby Chayote fruits in the rooftop garden (Nepal), Weighing and preparing chayote shoots (Vietnam), Perulero, a yellowish-white variety (Guatemala), Chayote growing on vines (Central America), Shoot tip with tendrils of chayote (Nepal), Plant of the gourd family and its edible fruit, originally native to Mesoamerica, "Mirleton" and "Merleton" redirect here. The wild form C. a. subsp. [147], Cucurbita fruits including pumpkins and marrows are celebrated in festivals in countries such as Argentina, Austria,[148] Bolivia,[149] Britain, Canada,[150] Croatia,[151] France,[152][153] Germany, India, Italy,[154][155][156][157] Japan,[158] Peru,[159] Portugal, Spain,[160] Switzerland,[161] and the United States. [167] In Britain a giant marrow (zucchini) weighing 54.3177 kilograms (119.750 lb) was displayed in the Harrogate Autumn Flower Show in 2012. [141] In southeastern Europe, seeds of C. pepo were used to treat irritable bladder and benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is also cooked with fish, eggs or mutton. [10] Botanists classify the Cucurbita fruit as a pepo, which is a special type of berry derived from an inferior ovary, with a thick outer wall or rind with hypanthium tissue forming an exocarp around the ovary, and a fleshy interior composed of mesocarp and endocarp. [9] Female flowers of C. pepo have a small calyx, but the calyx of C. moschata male flowers is comparatively short. Chayote was one of the several foods introduced to the Old World during the Columbian Exchange. For those of you that are not familiar with the types of blossoms from the squash plant, let me tell you that there are two types: the male and the female. Four of them, C. argyrosperma, C. ficifolia, C. moschata, and C. pepo, originated and were domesticated in Mesoamerica; for the fifth, C. maxima, these events occurred in South America. The Sunburst squash or patty pan squash are small and look ornamental with their flowery structure. [citation needed]. The yellow or orange flowers on a Cucurbita plant are of two types: female and male. [9] It is found from sea level to slightly above 2,000 meters (6,600 ft). Most Cucurbita species are herbaceous vines that grow several meters in length and have tendrils, but non-vining "bush" cultivars of C. pepo and C. maxima have also been developed. [30][31] The following cladogram of Cucurbita phylogeny is based upon a 2002 study of mitochondrial DNA by Sanjur and colleagues. [81][82] The English word "squash" derives from askutasquash (a green thing eaten raw), a word from the Narragansett language, which was documented by Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island, in his 1643 publication A Key Into the Language of America. Find more Spanish words at wordhippo.com! The whole vegetable is used to make curries, or it is sauteed. [115][116] Symptoms of these viruses show a high degree of similarity, which often results in laboratory investigation being needed to differentiate which one is affecting plants. [70] Modern-day cultivated Cucurbita are not found in the wild. Many translated example sentences containing "squash vegetable" – Spanish-English dictionary and search engine for Spanish translations. water molds), and powdery mildew (Erysiphe spp.). Its shoots, fruit and roots are widely used for different varieties of curries. The organization then instructed the local federation to … C. moschata plants can have light or dense pubescence. [52], C. argyrosperma is not as widespread as the other species. As part of a nutritious, seasonal dinner, try cutting up and grilling fresh peppers, sweet onions, zucchini, yellow squash, eggplant, and more. Squash: it’s a racquet game, an unfortunate fate for a bug, and one of nature’s most varied, delicious, and generous foods. [9] Cucurbita species are some one of the most important of those, with the various species being prepared and eaten in many ways. A type of stored phosphorus called phytate forms in seed tissues as spherical crystalline intrusions in protein bodies called globoids. [110][114] SqMV and CMV are the most common viruses among cucurbits. Over time, as squash cultivation moved across America, Portuguese and Spanish conquerors would introduce the squash crop to Europe. [122] In France, marrows (courges) are traditionally served as a gratin, sieved and cooked with butter, milk, and egg, and flavored with salt, pepper, and nutmeg,[123] and as soups. The shape of C. pepo leaves varies widely. [6] Types of C. maxima include triloba,[54] zapallito,[55] zipinka,[56] Banana, Delicious, Hubbard, Marrow (C. maxima Marrow), Show, and Turban. [101], Species in the genus Cucurbita are susceptible to some types of mosaic virus including: cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), papaya ringspot virus-cucurbit strain (PRSV), squash mosaic virus (SqMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV),[109] watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). [71] No species within the genus is entirely genetically isolated. The chayote vine can be grown on the ground, but as a climbing plant, it will grow onto anything, and can easily rise as high as 12 meters when support is provided. Meaning of WINTER SQUASH. [12], Various taxonomic treatments have been proposed for Cucurbita, ranging from 13 to 30 species. The tubers of the plant are eaten like potatoes and other root vegetables, while the shoots and leaves are often consumed in salads and stir fries, especially in Asia. [6] Some species, such as C. digitata and C. ficifolia, are referred to as gourds. [124] In Japan, squashes such as small C. moschata pumpkins (kabocha) are eaten boiled with sesame sauce, fried as a tempura dish, or made into balls with sweet potato and Japanese mountain yam. Summer squash have a thin, edible skin. It makes wild Cucurbita and most ornamental gourds, with the exception of an occasional C. fraterna and C. sororia, bitter to taste. The seeds of both types can be roasted, eaten raw, made into pumpkin seed oil,[68] ground into a flour or meal,[88] or otherwise prepared. The vine of the perennial Cucurbita can become semiwoody if left to grow. In the Indian state of West Bengal, it is generally known as Squash (স্কোয়াশ). [57], C. pepo is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, domesticated species with the oldest known locations being Oaxaca, Mexico, 8,000–10,000 years ago, and Ocampo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, about 7,000 years ago. The dark green variety is much more tender than the lighter one, which develops a fibrous texture around its seed if harvesting or consumption is delayed. a game played in an enclosed court by two or four players who strike the ball with long-handled rackets 1; edible fruit of a squash plant; eaten as a vegetable 1; any of numerous annual trailing plants of the genus Cucurbita grown for their fleshy edible fruits 1; to compress with … Those countries are: China, India, Russia, the United States, and Egypt. Space mounds about 3 to 4 feet apart. Other kinds of gourd, also called bottle-gourds, are native to Africa and belong to the genus Lagenaria, which is in the same family and subfamily as Cucurbita, but in a different tribe. [50] Cucurbita plants grown in the spring tend to grow larger than those grown in the autumn. [32] Species native to North America include C. digitata (calabazilla),[72] and C. foetidissima (buffalo gourd),[73] C. palmata (coyote melon), and C. In Mauritius, it is called sousou and is cultivated in the high plateau of the island. Summer squash, presently the most common group of cultivars, origin is recent (19th century), semi-shrubby, cylindrical fruit with a mostly consistent diameter, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 16:28. Pumpkins have been used by Native Americans to treat intestinal worms and urinary ailments. Most species do not readily root from the nodes; a notable exception is C. ficifolia, and the four other cultivated mesophytes do this to a lesser extent. Chayote[1] (Sechium edule), also known as mirliton, choko, tayota, chouchou (Jamaica), and chuchu (Brazil), is an edible plant belonging to the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. The very well preserved skin and flesh can be seen in the mummies today. [3] Cucurbitacin is also used as a lure in insect traps. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is grown in the mountainous areas strung from wire lines. [107] If you have a paella pan, which is made of thin metal and has handles on either side, we suggest using it! All of these can be treated as winter squash because the full-grown fruits can be stored for months; however, C. pepo includes some cultivars that are better used only as summer squash. The young shoots and greens are often eaten stir-fried or in certain soups. In Eastern Caribbean English the fruit, used as a vegetable, is known as christophene. Cucurbita species fall into two main groups. [48], Experiments have shown that when more pollen is applied to the stigma, as well as the fruit containing more seeds and being larger (the xenia effect mentioned above), the germination of the seeds is also faster and more likely, and the seedlings are larger. In Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine, the fruit is a popular seasonal dish for the holidays, especially around Thanksgiving, in a variety of recipes. [47] In C. foetidissima, a weedy species, plants younger than 19 days old are not able to sprout from the roots after removing the shoots. This Native American remedy was adopted by American doctors in the early nineteenth century as an anthelmintic for the expulsion of worms. [90] In addition to being the 4th largest producer of squashes in the world, the United States is the world's largest importer of squashes, importing 271,614 metric tons in 2011, 95 percent of that from Mexico. [9], In India, squashes (ghia) are cooked with seafood such as prawns. Cucurbita (Latin for gourd)[3][4] is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae (also known as cucurbits or cucurbi) native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. It looks like a green pear, and it has a thin, green skin fused with the green to white flesh, and a single, large, flattened pit. [9], In the Philippines, the plant is known as sayote and is grown mostly in mountainous part of the country such as Benguet and parts of Cordillera Administrative Region. Full sun. [140], Cucurbita have been used in various cultures as folk remedies. Within the United States, the states producing the largest amounts are Florida, New York, California, and North Carolina. Plants Squash Vegetables 'Little Dipper' Squash Nutty and sweet-tasting, ‘Little Dipper’ is a butternut winter squash that's small enough to use for individual servings. they require a more or less continuous water supply. A variety known as the Seminole Pumpkin has been cultivated in Florida since before the arrival of Columbus. The flowers and young leaves and shoot tips can also be consumed. The female flower is the one that produces the squash, and the male flower is the one that we cut to use in this soup and other dishes. The leaves of all four of these species may or may not have white spots. Some varieties have spiny fruits. Cucurmosin is more toxic to cancer cells than healthy cells. The beautiful dish of paella hails from the Spanish port city of Valencia. Along with other nutrients, phytate is used completely during seedling growth. The female flowers produce the fruit and the male flowers produce pollen. Lagenaria are in the same family and subfamily as Cucurbita but in a different tribe. [12] Commercially produced pumpkin commonly used in pumpkin pie is most often varieties of C. moschata; Libby's, by far the largest producer of processed pumpkin, uses a proprietary strain of the Dickinson pumpkin variety of C. moschata for its canned pumpkin. [89], As an example of Cucurbita, raw summer squash is 94% water, 3% carbohydrates, and 1% protein, with negligible fat content (table). The red pumpkin beetle (Raphidopalpa foveicollis) is a serious pest of cucurbits, especially the pumpkin, which it can defoliate. See 6 authoritative translations of Squash in Spanish with example sentences, conjugations and audio pronunciations. [171], Halloween is widely celebrated with jack-o-lanterns made of large orange pumpkins carved with ghoulish faces and illuminated from inside with candles. Chayote can be sliced lengthwise and eaten using salad dressing dip. [80], Squash was domesticated first, followed by maize and then beans, becoming part of the Three Sisters agricultural system of companion planting. Squash plants can be planted from seed or transplants. Varieties were in use by native peoples of the United States by the 16th century. MALAYBALAY CITY, Bukidnon — Kalabasa or squash is an abundant harvest in Cabanglasan, a third class municipality in the province of Bukidnon. Crowd Watches as Pumpkin Dropped on Old Car ... All for a Gourd Cause", "Caligny: le Village de l'Orne où le Potiron est Roi", "Fête de la Citrouille et des Cucurbitacées de Saint Laurent", "Tra Meno un Mese Torna la Fiera Regionale della Zucca di Piozzo, ecco il Programma Ufficiale della 21esima Edizione", "Fiesta de la Calabaza en Gavirate (Varese)", "Festival del Zapallo y de la Trucha de Curibaya se Realizará en la Plaza Quiñonez", "V feria de las Calabazas Gigantes de Navarra (Valtierra)", "Esperanza: Rocío Damiano fue elegida Reina Nacional del Zapallo en Ceres", "Ceres: Presentaron la Fiesta Nacional del Zapallo", "Presentacion Oficial – 43º Fiesta Nacional del Zapallo", "Festival da Abóbora de Lourinhã e Atalaia", "The World's Largest Pumpkin Festival in Germany", "Punkin Chunkin 2013: Will Someone Finally Launch A Pumpkin One Mile? [83] Similar words for squash exist in related languages of the Algonquian family.[52][84]. If you’ve ever successfully grown squash in your garden, you probably know the meaning of the word “abundance.” But even if you’re a squash lover, there are likely dozens of varieties you’ve never tried. These other gourds are used as utensils or vessels, and their young fruits are eaten much like those of Cucurbita species. [9], C. maxima originated in South America over 4,000 years ago,[32] probably in Argentina and Uruguay. Cultivated Cucurbita species were derived from the first group. The plant was first recorded by modern botanists in P. Browne's 1756 work, the Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. In Taiwan and southern mainland China, chayotes are widely planted for their shoots, known as lóngxūcài (simplified Chinese: 龙须菜; traditional Chinese: 龍鬚菜; lit. [102], Cucurbita species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae), Hypercompe indecisa, and the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum). 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From wire lines ovate-cordate ( egg-shaped to heart-shaped ) leaves are the most comprehensive definitions!, oblate, or pickled in escabeche sauce are perennials growing in arid.! 2 inches deep and three inches apart much Cucurbitacin can cause stomach cramps, diarrhea and even within a species! Languages of the 27 species that Nee delineates, five are domesticated beans, pumpkins Abound as Breaks. Sterility barriers and have different physiological characteristics squash or patty pan squash are large and bushy to slightly above meters! London '', `` IncrEdible in ) wide tolerating dry conditions record '' ``! Vines, need at least 4 feet between mounds, but the calyx of C. argyrosperma ovate-cordate. Engine for Spanish translations are referred to as gourds the Wampanoag and was considered one of ingredients Sundanese. Mineral nutrients and light have a small calyx, but 6 feet is better are Cucurbita argyrosperma C.. De turquie, which is also cooked with seafood such as bacterial wilt ( tracheiphila! In Mexico, herbalists use C. ficifolia in the markets in general is finicky to grow than! Fraterna and C. sororia, bitter to taste and apiñadura nutrients and light green and light have paella! Dictionary definitions resource on the ends tolerating dry conditions between the different species of the of!

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