Helen Fyles, Chandra Madramootoo, in Emerging Technologies for Promoting Food Security, 2016. Use of dairy cattle and poultry, including using zero-grazing. Ritchie (1971) suggested a possibility for water conservation by increasing soil albedo, which could be achieved by maintaining closer row spacing and higher plant populations. This process helps in substantial reduction of deep percolation and evaporation from the soil surface. Though some work has claimed that these two outcomes are necessarily related to total organic matter (Lal, 2004), more recent work has demonstrated that these two goals may be at odds (Cates and Ruark, 2017; Wood et al., 2016). Wood, Mark A. Bradford, in Soil Carbon Storage, 2018. Reduced tillage maintains more residue on the soil surface, reduces erosion, and conserves soil moisture compared with plowing and other intensive land preparation and cultivation methods. Improved soil management practices that change the soil water balance through water evaporation and infiltration leading to an increase in soil water retention and organic matter affect ET rates and potentially increase crop yield, thereby increasing WUE. C.A. Grass strips: planted or left unploughed along contours. Therefore the use of SF rather than WS appears as a good solution to increase OM content in the soil, reducing NH3 emissions. An optimum solution could be the combination of soil conservative practices and the application of organic soil amendments. Soil management needs to be directed toward a number of goals, only one of which is maximizing maize yield. Soil management is the foundation of agriculture and essential to sustainable forage and beef production. Development of management practices suitable to specific crops can also lead to improvements in plant water use. Incorporates fish, shrimps, and other aquatic resources into farm systems, such as into irrigated rice fields and fish ponds, and so leads to increases in protein production. The concern over soil contamination stems primarily from health risks, both of direct contact and from secondary contamination of water supplies. Provides manure to fertilize fields. Understand the physical properties of soils and the chemical processes which influence soil fertility and a soil… The main challenge of soil management is to minimize C losses and simultaneously increase soil C content. These methods are simple, practical, and relatively fast. The use of organic and inorganic mulches in vineyards conserves soil moisture by minimizing evaporation and improving soil infiltration (Pinamonti, 1998; Chan et al., 2010; Medrano et al., 2015b). Cameira et al. Soil management to improve soil moisture for crop use through reduced evaporation losses and to prevent erosion and nutrient and organic matter losses can be accomplished using resource-conserving technologies and practices (Table 3). Forests are also an important defense against global climate change. Soil incorporation of Si as a drought stress-relieving agent is also helpful in enhancing WUE of cereals (Abdel Latef and Tran, 2016; Hameed et al., 2013; Ullah et al., 2018). Crop rotations: Alternatively growing a cereal and a legume in the same field will not only increase … Some practices, like the establishment of improved pastures with better-performing African grasses, legumes, and liming, enhance their communities, whereas others, like traditional annual crops, severely deplete their density and diversity (Lavelle and Pashanasi, 1989; Decaens et al., 1994; Figure 7). Reliance on excess residues. Leveraging a New Understanding of how Belowground Food Webs Stabilize Soil Organic Matter to Promote Ecological Intensification of Agriculture, Hoben et al., 2011; Vitousek et al., 2009, Managing organic amendments in agroecosystems to enhance soil carbon storage and mitigate climate change, Paula Alvarenga, ... Maria Pilar Bernal, in, Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, Nitrogen fixation, contributions to soil organic matter, fibrous root systems contribute to loosening soil and quality, Provides nitrogen and other nutrients, increases level of soil organic matter, improves soil tilth and quality, Use of primarily green manure crops and animal manure produced by feeding grain or forage on same farm helps balance, Provide cover over the ground surface during much of the year to prevent erosion, trap nutrients, contribute organic matter, Synchronize crop planting and growth cycle with availability of nutrients from soil reserve, Maintains crop residues on top of soil, where they break down more slowly and provide nutrients when needed by later crops, Rotation of crops with perennial pastures and grazing animals provides manure, fixed nitrogen, and green biomass to soil, Seeding crops on contours or terraces reduces soil erosion and thus reduces nutrient losses with eroding soil, Integration of a diverse array of animal enterprises provides an internal market for forages and helps cycle nutrients. Our chapter—and principle—are aimed at establishing win-wins in soil management based on cutting-edge concepts in soil fertility management. There have for decades been numerous and persistent calls to increase the amount of no-till or to convert ‘conventional tillage’ to ‘conservation tillage’ in order to decrease the amount of soil loss and also to help increase soil organic matter. Traditional management by local human communities, i.e., shifting cultivation, can even restore diversity to levels larger than those characteristic of the nearby natural vegetation. 10.2 and 10.3). Thus, this initial overview of soil research challenges in response to emerging soil management practices provides an information base for integrated endeavors of agronomists and soil scientists, as well as other researchers, to support the development and optimal implementation of practices and technologies to maintain soil functions and realize a sustainable intensification. 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